To Understand how to assess writing skills, we have to understand what writing is in terms of English language teaching,
Writing is a visual form of communication, either printed in hard-copy or in electronic form. It follows conventions that are mutually understandable by the writer and the reader, even if these conventions change over time or are used with specific meanings in smaller speech communities
Writing is considered a productive skill because the writer creates new language and does not only interpret existing information.
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Genres of Written Language
Now that we know what writing is, we have to learn a little bit about the genres of written language.
Papers and general subject reports Essays, compositions Academically focused journals Short-answer test responses Technical reports (e.g., lab reports)Thesis, dissertations
|Job-related writing|| |
Messages (e.g., phone messages)Letter / emails Memos (e.g., interoffice)Reports (e.g., job evaluations, project reports)Advertisements, announcements Manuals
Letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations Messages, notes Calendar entries, shopping lists, reminders,Financial documents (e.g., checks, tax forms, loan applications)Forms, questionnaires, medical reports, immigration documents Diaries, personal journals Fiction (e.g., short stories, poetry)
Types of Writing Performance
To understand how to assess writing skills, we have to understand the different types of writing performance:
at this stage, form is the primary concern to assess learner’s skills in the fundamental and basic tasks of writing letters, words, punctuation, and very brief sentences.
This category also includes the ability to spell correctly and to perceive phoneme-grapheme correspondences in the English spelling system
This refers to producing appropriate vocabulary within a context, collocations and idioms, and correct grammatical features up to the length of a sentence.
Assessment tasks here require learners to perform at a limited discourse level, connecting sentences into a paragraph and creating a logically connected sequence of two or three paragraphs. Form-focused attention is mostly at the discourse level, with a strong emphasis on context and meaning.
Extensive writing implies successful management of all the processes and strategies of writing for all purposes, up to the length of an essay a term paper, a major research project report, or even a thesis. Writers focus on achieving a purpose, organizing and developing ideas logically, using details to support or illustrate ideas, demonstrating syntactic and lexical variety, and in many cases, engaging in the process of multiple drafts to achieve a final product.
(1) Paraphrasing: to say something in one’s own words and offer some variety in expression. It’s more often a part of informal and formative assessment than of formal, summative assessment, and therefore student responses should be viewed as opportunities for teachers and students to gain positive washback on the art of paraphrasing.
(2) Guided question and answer
A lower-end task as a guided question-answer format may be as long as two or three paragraphs and can be scored on either an analytic or a holistic scale. Writing an outline is a variation of the task.
(3) Paragraph construction tasks
- Topic sentence writing (subject + the controlling idea)
- Topic development within a paragraph
- the clarity of expression of ideas
- the logic of the sequence and connections
- the cohesiveness or unity of the paragraph
- the overall effectiveness of impact of the paragraph as a whole
- Development of main and supporting ideas across paragraphs
- addressing the topic, main idea, or principal purpose
- organizing and developing supporting ideas
- using appropriate details to undergird supporting ideas
- showing facility and fluency in the use of language
- demonstrating syntactic variety
Assessment Related Articles
Check these pages and sites before you go:
- How to Assess Grammar and Lexis
- How to Assess Writing Skills
- How to Assess Reading Skills
- How to Assess Speaking Skills
- What are Objective and Subjective Tests?
- Reliability, Validity and Practicality
English Teaching Related Articles
These are some posts related to teaching listening:
- Stages for Teaching Listening
- Best Pre-Listening Activities
- Best While-Listening Activities
- Best Post-Listening Activities
- What Types of Listening are there?
These are some posts for teaching methodology:
- Presentation, Practice and Production Framework
- Teacher-Centered Instruction
- Student-Centered Instruction
- Tips to Reduce Teacher Talking Time
These are some assessment related posts