In my own experience I was introduced to the term Second Language Acquisition when I was about to finish my major in English Teaching , Since that time I started digging deeper in such a fascinating topic and terms.
Many times I have attempted to explain students that in spanish we omit pronouns in sentences , for instance , I can say “Se Inglés” instead of Saying “Yo se Inglés ” and it is perfectly fine and sometimes students whose mother tongue is spanish want to do the same thing with English and I have to remind them that English doesn’t work the same way as Spanish does.
Tonight while reading the term Second Language Acquisition in Wikipedia , I found the term Language Transfer and I knew that the term is everything that I just explained above.
This is the definition found online:
In addition, some errors that second-language learners make in their speech originate in their first language. For example, Spanish speakers learning English may say “Is raining” rather than “It is raining”, leaving out the subject of the sentence. French speakers learning English, however, do not usually make the same mistake. This is because sentence subjects can be left out in Spanish, but not in French. This influence of the first language on the second is known as language transfer.
When the relevant unit or structure of both languages is the same, linguistic interference can result in correct language production called positive transfer — “correct” meaning in line with most native speakers’ notions of acceptability. Note, however, that language interference is most often discussed as a source of errors known as negative transfer. Negative transfer occurs when speakers and writers transfer items and structures that are not the same in both languages
Transfer may be conscious or unconscious. Consciously, learners or unskilled translators may sometimes guess when producing speech or text in a second language because they have not learned or have forgotten its proper usage. Unconsciously, they may not realize that the structures and internal rules of the languages in question are different. Such users could also be aware of both the structures and internal rules, yet be insufficiently skilled to put them into practice, and consequently often fall back on their first language.