Types of Cohesive Devices

What are Cohesive Devices?

Cohesive devices, sometimes called linking words, linkers, connectors, discourse markers or transitional words.

Cohesive Devices are words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections of a text or speech.

Cohesive devices are words like ‘For example‘, ‘In conclusion‘, ‘however‘ and ‘moreover‘.

Let’s look at these two examples below:

  1. Netflix has many movies and shows and it is only $9.
  2. The christmas tree is natural but it is expensive.

As we can see in the sentences above, and it is used to add something to the previous statement,

In the second sentence, we can see how something positive and negative is said about the christmas. We know that because the word but is used to contrast ideas.

What are some examples of Cohesive Devices?

There are many examples of cohesive devices, they can be grouped by category.

If you want so show similarity, you can use cohesive devices such as:


If you want to introduce an item in a series, you can use:

First Then
In the first placeIn addition
In the second placeFinally

If you need to compare, you can use cohesive devices such as:

But However
NeverthelessBy comparison
MeanwhileIn contrast

For emphasizing, you can use cohesive devices such as:

In factCertainly
Without any doubtDefinitely

If you need a full list of cohesive devices, have a look at my Full List of Cohesive Devices by Category 

What are the Different Types of Cohesion?

Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning.

There are two main types of Cohesion, grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion.

  1. Grammatical cohesion, which is based on structural content.
  2. lexical cohesion, is based on lexical content and background knowledge

Methods of Cohesion with Examples

#1 Anaphoric Reference

Anaphoric Reference means that a word in a text refers back to other ideas in the text for its meaning. 

For example:

‘I went out with Jo on Sunday. She looked awful.’ ´She` clearly refers to Jo, there is no need to repeat her name. 

#2 Cataphoric References

Cataphoric reference means that a word in a text refers to another later in the text and you need to look forward to understand

For example:

When he arrived, John noticed that the door was open’.

#3 Exophoric Reference

Exophoric reference  refers to an idea outside the text. This is a reference to world knowledge shared by the reader


” The Prime Minister responded quickly to the threat. Here we are expected to know who the Prime Minister is”

#4 Tense Agreement

Tense agreement refers to the way that writers use tenses to make a text hang together


“She knew then that he… “had found her letter” is a logical ending to the sentence. We are not surprised to see past perfect after simple past in a narrative sentence.”

#5 Linkers

Linkers refers  to words or phrases that describe the relationship between ideas in the text


“And, but, therefore, first of all”

#6 Substitution

Substitution or Ellipsis refers to eplacing words, or leaving them out– this is how writers reduce repetition in a text


“Now we’re finishing our essays. I know you want to go out, but before you can do that, please finish. ‘do that’ avoids a repetition of ‘go out’. Instead of repeating ‘finish our essays’ ‘our essays’ is dropped from the sentence”


Interested in Learning More?

These are some other resources related to English Language Teaching and Learning

Check these resources about teaching writing