Principles of Language Assessment: Reading

Reading

 

teaching reading 1

Genres of reading:

  • Academic reading (textbooks, essays, papers
  • Job-related reading (messages, letters, reports, financial documents)
  • Personal reading (Newspaper, magazines, e-mails , greeting cards)

Types of reading

Perceptive: perceptive reading tasks involve attending to the components of larger stretches of discourse: letters, words, punctuation, and other graphemic symbols. Bottom-up processing is implied. At the beginning level of reading a second language, the fundamental tasks include: recognition of alphabetic symbols, capitalized and lowercase letters, punctuation, words, and grapheme-phoneme correspondences. They are referred to as “literacy” tasks, implying that the learner is in the early stages of becoming ‘literate’. Items include 1) Reading aloud; 2)Written response; 3) Multiple-Choice; 4) Picture-Cued Items.

Minimal Pair Distinction

Grapheme Recognition Task

Picture-cued  Word Identification

Selective: a selective task is to ascertain one’s reading recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse features of language within a very short stretch of language. Items such as picture-cued tasks, matching, true/false, multiple-choice, etc. Expected answers include sentences, brief paragraphs, simple charts and graphs, and brief responses as well. A combination of bottom-up and top-down processing may be both used to assess lexical and grammatical aspects of reading ability. Items include: 1) Multiple-Choice (form-focused criteria); 2) Matching Tasks; 3) Editing tasks; 4) Picture-cued tasks; and 5) Gap-filling tasks

Contextualized Multiple ChoiceMultiple-Choice (form-focused criteriaPicture-cued tasksSentence Completion TaskVocabulary Matching Task

Interactive: Reading is a process of negotiating meaning; the reader brings to the text a set of schemata for understanding it, and intake is the product of that interaction. The focus of an interactive task is to identify relevant features (lexical, symbolic, grammatical, and discourse) within texts of moderately short length with the objective of retaining the information that is processed. Top-down processing is typical of such tasks with occasional use of bottom-up skills.Tasks at this level, like selective tasks, have a combination of form-focused and meaning-focused objectives but with more emphasis on meaning. Texts are a little longer, from a paragraph to as many as a page or so in case of ordinary prose. Charts, graphs, and other graphics may be somewhat complex in their format. Tasks include: cloze tasks, multiple choices for reading comprehension, short-answer questions, editing tasks, scanning, ordering tasks, non-verbal tasks for information transfer such as charts, maps, graphs, and diagrams.

Cloze procedure- Fixed- ratio deletionCloze procedure- Rational deletionOpen-ended reading comprehension questionSentence-ordering task

Extensive: extensive reading applies to texts of more than one page up to and including professional articles, essays, technical reports, short stories, and books. Global understanding is the goal for assessment. Top-down processing is assumed for most extensive tasks. Skimming tasks are to get the main ideas; summarizing (a synopsis or overview of the text) and responding (personal opinion on the test as a whole). Note-taking and outlining are both used frequently for the higher-ordered learning.  But tasks like short-answers, editing, scanning, ordering, and information transfer tasks can also be used to assess extensive reading.

Skimming TaskSummarizing

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Teaching Reading : The Benefits of Milk

Food pyramid isolated on white

6 Health Benefits of Milk

Read the paragraph and identify where these titles belong .

  • Muscles
  • Glowing Skin
  • Healthy bones and teeth
  • Less stress
  • Weight loss
  • Healthy Body

1. ___________________

Cleopatra took milk baths to help her skin stay soft, supple and glowing. You can do the same, or you can drink a few glasses of whole milk each day to get its benefits. Milk has several nutrients which help skin look its best. It has lactic acid which can act as an exfoliant and enzymes to help smooth skin. It also has amino acids that help keep skin moisturized. Milk can help prevent damage from environmental toxins because it has antioxidants. However, if you have a sensitivity to milk or dairy products, milk can actually aggravate your skin.

2. ___________________

Milk is a great source of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones. Not only do young children need it while their bones are growing, but adults need it to keep their bones strong and to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is also great for strong teeth, and it helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. In order for the calcium to be absorbed by the body, vitamin D must be present. If you have a vitamin D deficiency, buy milk that is fortified with extra vitamin D to ensure that your body absorbs the calcium.

3. ___________________

Milk contains protein, which helps to rebuild muscles. Drink a glass of milk after you exercise to give your body what it needs to recover. It will help to keep soreness at bay while replenishing fluids that you lost during your workout.

4. ___________________

Studies show that women who drink low-fat or skim milk lose more weight than those who exclude milk from their diet. It is a great appetizer and it makes a healthy snack. Add a glass to your dinner, or drink a glass while eating a piece of fruit.

5. ___________________

Milk is a great way to de-stress at the end of the day. A glass of warm milk will help to relax tense muscles and soothe frayed nerves. Milk has also been proven to reduce symptoms of PMS and boost energy. The next time you are feeling frazzled, try drinking a glass of milk while you soak in a bubble bath.

6. ____________________

Milk has properties that lower high blood pressure and risk of strokes. It reduces the liver’s production of cholesterol, and it can act as an antacid. Vitamins A and B in milk can help build good eyesight. Milk has also been show to help lower risk of certain cancers.

 

Teaching Reading: Fight Article

grammar

Instructions

Complete the  following text using the verbs  from  the  following list

  • came
  • fell
  • dominated
  • threw
  • rematched
  • got
  • called
  • looked
  • followed
  • snapped
  • made
  • stayed
  • stopped
  • landed

After taking the Middleweight title with a shocking knockout at UFC 162Chris Weidman _______________Anderson Silva in the main event of UFC 168. Weidman _______________ the first round with his wrestling and top control. To the disappointment of every fan, Silva had his leg _________________ as he _________________ a leg kick in the second round and the fight was ____________________.

Weidman_____________ in early with a quick takedown, but Silva __________ right back to his feet. Another takedown from Weidman and he ________________with ground and pound, but Silva was able to minimize the damage. Weidman _______________many good shots from there, but Silva _______________ calm throughout the round. With shots from bottom, Silva____________ Weidman’s nose bleed.

Silva ______________much better in the second round. He was landing low kicks and staying away from Weidman’s clinch range. Unfortunately, a checked leg kick caused Silva’s leg to snap in the shin. He immediately ______________and the fight was ______________ off.