Stephen Krashen: known for introducing various hypotheses related to second-language acquisition, including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the input hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis.
1. We all acquire language the same way.
The process is the same even though you can learn a langauge in a different number of ways. No process is the same for all students but there are things that all students have in common.
2. Silent period is normal.
The silent period hypothesis is the idea that when a language is learned, there should be a period in which the learner is not expected to actively produce any language. Silent period is a normal stage in every language learner, sometimes this period is even more traumatic because students take classes that are way above their level so they see their peers communicating while their confidence gets lower and lower. If you attend to a class that it is tailored for you, you’ll do well.
3. We acquire language when we understand what people tell us .
If you say that you spend days and nights listening to music in English but you don’t understand of word of what you are listening to, sorry but you aren’t doing much. Meaningful input is the input that I can comprehend
4. Talking is not practicing.
This is something that I have been telling to my students in oral communication classes when they do the talking but they don’t want to pay attention to their peers. The only way to learn new words is by reading and listen the words written and said by others
5. Speaking is not the beginning of language acquisition, it is the result of comprehensible input.
This is covered in many ways during the presentation, speaking is the result of your hard work learning the language.
6. It is not what you say but what the other person says to you.
Your brain is not made to create language on the go, you need to learn from other. Stop being selfish and be a good listener. if you want to do better, start paying attention to those around you.
7. Speaking is an indirect contribution to language acquisition.
Speaking is a indirect contribution because if you are able to communicate with others, it means that you did your homework, I mean you spent a certain amount of time exposing yourself to language in spoken and written ways.
8. Motivated students do better in Second Language Acquisition.
Motivation is something difficult to talk about, there are many external factors that influence the desire of a student to improve his linguistic skills. If motivation was something easy to share, the results would be amazing but that’s not the case.
9. Students with more self-esteem do better in language acquisition.
when you meet new students, you will see that there are some students who are not afraid to make mistakes, they can laugh at their own mistakes and understand that making mistakes is part of the life of every language learner. Those students tend to do well in classes.
10. The lower the anxiety, the better the language acquisition.
You might hear that a little bit of anxiety is OK, if you don’t like that ot you think evaluations, homework and presentation are too much, I would suggest taking sometime before taking an English class, there are many plenty of opportunities to learn outside the classroom and that could boost your confidence when you decide to step into an English class for the first time.
11. Students need to assume that they are going to be successful.
I think that you need to be positive in all instance but happy and positive thoughts won’t teach how to make sentences in the passive voice, stay positive but do your work
12. There is a Language Acquisition Device in all of us.
The LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language. It is a component of the nativist theory of language. This theory asserts that humans are born with the instinct or “innate facility” for acquiring language.
13. Don’t believe in torture but a little anxiety is OK
One of my favorite statements from the video because not all subjects are supposed to be easy, sometimes you need your teacher to ask for difficult things so you can reach your potential.
Second Language Acquisition Terms and Authors
Noam Chomsky: He is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as “the father of modern linguistics.”
Second Language Acquisition: the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.
The input hypothesis: This states that learners progress in their knowledge of the language when they comprehend language input that is slightly more advanced than their current level.
The acquisition–learning hypothesis claims that there is a strict separation between acquisition and learning; acquisition as a purely subconscious process and learning as a conscious process, and claimed that improvement in language ability was only dependent upon acquisition and never on learning.
Monitor Hypothesis: The monitor hypothesis asserts that a learner’s learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.
Natural Order Hypothesis: The natural order hypothesis states that all learners acquire a language in roughly the same order. This order is not dependent on the ease with which a particular language feature can be taught; some features, such as third-person “-s” (“he runs”) are easy to teach in a classroom setting, but are not typically acquired until the later stages of language acquisition.
Interlanguage: It is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.
Language Transfer: This refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language
Universal Grammar: is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience.
Learn more about Second Language Acquisition
- 3 Affective Variables in Second Language Acquisition
- 5 Things You Should Know if you are in your Silent Period
- Language Acquisition: The Critical Period Hypothesis
- Second Language Acquisition: Interlanguage and Fossilization
- Noam Chomsky on Universal Grammar
- Second Language Acquisition: Monitor Hypothesis
- Second Language Acquisition: Language Transfer