Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition

Second Language AcquisitionSecond Language Acquisition Terms and Authors

Stephen Krashen: known for introducing various hypotheses related to second-language acquisition, including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the input hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis.

Noam Chomsky: He is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as “the father of modern linguistics.”

Second Language Acquisition: the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.

The input hypothesis: This states that learners progress in their knowledge of the language when they comprehend language input that is slightly more advanced than their current level.

The acquisition–learning hypothesis claims that there is a strict separation between acquisition and learning; acquisition as a purely subconscious process and learning as a conscious process, and claimed that improvement in language ability was only dependent upon acquisition and never on learning.

Monitor Hypothesis: The monitor hypothesis asserts that a learner’s learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.

Natural Order Hypothesis: The natural order hypothesis states that all learners acquire a language in roughly the same order. This order is not dependent on the ease with which a particular language feature can be taught; some features, such as third-person “-s” (“he runs”) are easy to teach in a classroom setting, but are not typically acquired until the later stages of language acquisition.

Interlanguage: It is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.

Language Transfer: This refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language


Universal Grammar: is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience.

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