Literary Movements: Trascendentalism



It is a philosophical, political and literary movement whose father is Ralph Waldo Emerson and that proposes that knowledge can be obtained through the senses, intuition and contemplation. It arose as a reaction to or protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality.

Characteristics of the Movement and  Literary works

  1. The roots of this philosophical movement go back to the theories of Immanuel Kant.ant concerned himself with the abstractions of existence – those things which cannot be known for sure.
  2. Trascendentalists believe that people are at their best when truly “self-reliant” and independent.
  3. Trascendentalists believe that individual intuition is the highest source of knowledge.
  4. Transcendental writers consider that religion and political parties corrupted the purity of the individual.
  5. A lot of the Transcendentalist writers wrote poetry as well as essays.
  6. The Transcendentalists believed that folks can understand truth through intuition.
  7. According to the Transcendentalists, the only way to access that realm of experience and knowledge is to trust in our intuition.
  8. Transcendentalists  professed skepticism of all established religions, believing that Divinity resided in the individual.
  9. Transcendentalists believed that nature and man are intertwined and designed to fit together like pieces of a larger puzzle and that total consciousness could be achieved through observing nature
  10. Trascendentalists believe that the universe is within ourselves.
  11. Trascentalism opposed slavery and gender inequality

 Authors and Literary Works


Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism

Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian. A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay “Civil Disobedience”

Sarah Margaret Fuller Ossoli (May 23, 1810 – July 19, 1850), commonly known as Margaret Fuller, was an American journalist, critic, and women’s rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement.


Literary Movements: Victorian Period



Victorian literature is literature written in England during the reign of Queen Victoria, or roughly from 1837 -1901.


  1. It is largely characterized by the struggle of working people and the triumph of right over wrong.
  2. The novel replaced the poem as the most fashionable vehicle for the transmission of literature.
  3.  The novel as a genre rose to entertain the rising middle class and to depict the contemporary life in a changing society.
  4. The novels have a stress on realism and an attempt to describe the daily struggles of ordinary men that the middle class reader could associate with
  5. On the Origin of Species is published on 24 November 1859 and this becomes the foundation of evolutionary biology.

Authors and Literary Works


Charles Dickens (1812–1870) dominated the first part of Victoria’s reign: his first novel, Pickwick Papers, was published in 1836. He also wrote a christmas carol and the Adventures of Oliver Twist


William Makepeace Thackeray was an English novelist and author of the 19th century. He is known for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society.  His most famous work Vanity Fair appeared in 1848.

Charlotte Brontë  was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. She first published her works (including her best known novel, Jane Eyre)

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson  was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure IslandKidnappedStrange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and A Child’s Garden of Verses.


Literary Movement: Romanticism


Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and its a reaction to the Enlightment.

Characteristics of the Movement

  1. The romantics have no interest in objective nationality and that’s a big reaction to the age of the enlightment.
  2. The romantics trust their hearts over their heads.
  3. The romantics believed that knowledge is gained through intuition rather than deduction.
  4. The romantics were interested in the supernatural.
  5. The romantics see the common man as a hero.
  6. The romantics see nature as a source of spirituality.
  7. The romantic rely on imaginantion and escapism, escapism refers to the  beautiful places where you mind takes you to escape from the harsh conditions.

Authors and their Literary Works

Nathaniel Howthorne was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism

Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre. He is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole, and he was one of the country’s earliest practitioners of the short story.

Jane Austin was an English novelist  With the publications of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1815), she achieved success as a published writer


James Fenimore Cooper was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece


Mary Shelley was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818).